UNESCO- Iran in World Heritage List
The United Nations, Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972. Iran accepted the convention on 26 February 1975, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list. As of 2017, twenty-two sites in Iran are included. Some of them belong to pre-Islam Iran and some to post-Islam Iran. Iran is an ancient country that can potentially offer plenty of more historic sites and tourist attractions to its visitors. Many historic monuments deserve to be listed as World Heritage Sites.
The Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran, in the north-west of the country, consists of three monastic ensembles of the Armenian Christian faith: St Thaddeus and St Stepanos and the Chapel of Dzordzor. These edifices - the oldest of which, St Thaddeus, dates back to the 7th century – are examples of outstanding universal value of the Armenian architectural and decorative traditions. They bear testimony to very important interchanges with the other regional cultures, in particular the Byzantine, Orthodox and Persian. Situated on the south-eastern fringe of the main zone of the Armenian cultural space, the monasteries constituted a major centre for the dissemination of that culture in the region. They are the last regional remains of this culture that are still in a satisfactory state of integrity and authenticity. Furthermore, as places of pilgrimage, the monastic ensembles are living witnesses of Armenian religious traditions through the centuries.
Bam is situated in a desert environment on the southern edge of the Iranian high plateau. The origins of Bam can be traced back to the Achaemenid period (6th to 4th centuries BC). Its heyday was from the 7th to 11th centuries, being at the crossroads of important trade routes and known for the production of silk and cotton garments. The existence of life in the oasis was based on the underground irrigation canals, the qanāts, of which Bam has preserved some of the earliest evidence in Iran. Arg-e Bam is the most representative example of a fortified medieval town built in vernacular technique using mud layers (Chineh ).
Bisotun is located along the ancient trade route linking the Iranian high plateau with Mesopotamia and features remains from the prehistoric times to the Median, Achaemenid, Sassanian, and Ilkhanid periods. The principal monument of this archaeological site is the bas-relief and cuneiform inscription ordered by Darius I, The Great, when he rose to the throne of the Persian Empire, 521 BC. The bas-relief portrays Darius holding a bow, as a sign of sovereignty, and treading on the chest of a figure who lies on his back before him. According to legend, the figure represents Gaumata, the Median Magus and pretender to the throne whose assassination led to Darius’s rise to power. Below and around the bas-reliefs, there are ca. 1,200 lines of inscriptions telling the story of the battles Darius waged in 521-520 BC against the governors who attempted to take apart the Empire founded by Cyrus. The inscription is written in three languages. The oldest is an Elamite text referring to legends describing the king and the rebellions. This is followed by a Babylonian version of similar legends. The last phase of the inscription is particularly important, as it is here that Darius introduced for the first time the Old Persian version of his res gestae (things done). This is the only known monumental text of the Achaemenids to document the re-establishment of the Empire by Darius I. It also bears witness to the interchange of influences in the development of monumental art and writing in the region of the Persian Empire. There are also remains from the Median period (8th to 7th centuries B.C.) as well as from the Achaemenid (6th to 4th centuries B.C.) and post-Achaemenid periods.
Maymand is a self-contained, semi-arid area at the end of a valley at the southern extremity of Iran’s central mountains. The villagers are semi-nomadic agro-pastoralists. They raise their animals on mountain pastures, living in temporary settlements in spring and autumn. During the winter months they live lower down the valley in cave dwellings carved out of the soft rock (kamar), an unusual form of housing in a dry, desert environment. This cultural landscape is an example of a system that appears to have been more widespread in the past and involves the movement of people rather than animals.
Golestan Palace (2013)
The lavish Golestan Palace is a masterpiece of the Qajar era, embodying the successful integration of earlier Persian crafts and architecture with Western influences. The walled Palace, one of the oldest groups of buildings in Teheran, became the seat of government of the Qajar family, which came into power in 1779 and made Teheran the capital of the country. Built around a garden featuring pools as well as planted areas, the Palace’s most characteristic features and rich ornaments date from the 19th century. It became a centre of Qajari arts and architecture of which it is an outstanding example and has remained a source of inspiration for Iranian artists and architects to this day. It represents a new style incorporating traditional Persian arts and crafts and elements of 18th century architecture and technology.
Gonbad-e Qābus (2012)
The 53 m high tomb built in ad 1006 for Qābus Ibn Voshmgir, Ziyarid ruler and literati, near the ruins of the ancient city of Jorjan in north-east Iran, bears testimony to the cultural exchange between Central Asian nomads and the ancient civilization of Iran. The tower is the only remaining evidence of Jorjan, a former centre of arts and science that was destroyed during the Mongols’ invasion in the 14th and 15th centuries. It is an outstanding and technologically innovative example of Islamic architecture that influenced sacral building in Iran, Anatolia and Central Asia. Built of unglazed fired bricks, the monument’s intricate geometric forms constitute a tapering cylinder with a diameter of 17–15.5 m, topped by a conical brick roof. It illustrates the development of mathematics and science in the Muslim world at the turn of the first millennium AD.
Historic City of Yazd (2017)
The City of Yazd is located in the middle of the Iranian plateau, 270 km southeast of Isfahan, close to the Spice and Silk Roads. It bears living testimony to the use of limited resources for survival in the desert. Water is supplied to the city through a qanat system developed to draw underground water. The earthen architecture of Yazd has escaped the modernization that destroyed many traditional earthen towns, retaining its traditional districts, the qanat system, traditional houses, bazars, hammams, mosques, synagogues, Zoroastrian temples and the historic garden of Dolat-abad.
Masjed-e Jāmé of Isfahan (2012)
Located in the historic centre of Isfahan, the Masjed-e Jāmé (‘Friday mosque’) can be seen as a stunning illustration of the evolution of mosque architecture over twelve centuries, starting in ad 841. It is the oldest preserved edifice of its type in Iran and a prototype for later mosque designs throughout Central Asia. The complex, covering more than 20,000 m2, is also the first Islamic building that adapted the four-courtyard layout of Sassanid palaces to Islamic religious architecture. Its double-shelled ribbed domes represent an architectural innovation that inspired builders throughout the region. The site also features remarkable decorative details representative of stylistic developments over more than a thousand years of Islamic art.
Meidan Emam, Esfahan (1979)
Built by Shah Abbas I the Great at the beginning of the 17th century, and bordered on all sides by monumental buildings linked by a series of two-storeyed arcades, the site is known for the Royal Mosque, the Mosque of Sheykh Lotfollah, the magnificent Portico of Qaysariyyeh and the 15th-century Timurid palace. They are an impressive testimony to the level of social and cultural life in Persia during the Safavid era.
Pasargadae was the first dynastic capital of the Achaemenid Empire, founded by Cyrus II the Great, in Pars, homeland of the Persians, in the 6th century BC. Its palaces, gardens and the mausoleum of Cyrus are outstanding examples of the first phase of royal Achaemenid art and architecture and exceptional testimonies of Persian civilization. Particularly noteworthy vestiges in the 160-ha site include: the Mausoleum of Cyrus II; Tall-e Takht, a fortified terrace; and a royal ensemble of gatehouse, audience hall, residential palace and gardens. Pasargadae was the capital of the first great multicultural empire in Western Asia. Spanning the Eastern Mediterranean and Egypt to the Hindus River, it is considered to be the first empire that respected the cultural diversity of its different peoples. This was reflected in Achaemenid architecture, a synthetic representation of different cultures.
Founded by Darius I in 518 B.C., Persepolis was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire. It was built on an immense half-artificial, half-natural terrace, where the king of kings created an impressive palace complex inspired by Mesopotamian models. The importance and quality of the monumental ruins make it a unique archaeological site.
Shahr-i Sokhta (2014)
Shahr-i Sokhta, meaning ‘Burnt City’, is located at the junction of Bronze Age trade routes crossing the Iranian plateau. The remains of the mudbrick city represent the emergence of the first complex societies in eastern Iran. Founded around 3200 BC, it was populated during four main periods up to 1800 BC, during which time there developed several distinct areas within the city: those where monuments were built, and separate quarters for housing, burial and manufacture. Diversions in water courses and climate change led to the eventual abandonment of the city in the early second millennium. The structures, burial grounds and large number of significant artefacts unearthed there, and their well-preserved state due to the dry desert climate, make this site a rich source of information regarding the emergence of complex societies and contacts between them in the third millennium BC.
Built between the beginning of the 16th century and the end of the 18th century, this place of spiritual retreat in the Sufi tradition uses Iranian traditional architectural forms to maximize use of available space to accommodate a variety of functions (including a library, a mosque, a school, mausolea, a cistern, a hospital, kitchens, a bakery, and some offices). It incorporates a route to reach the shrine of the Sheikh divided into seven segments, which mirror the seven stages of Sufi mysticism, separated by eight gates, which represent the eight attitudes of Sufism. The ensemble includes well-preserved and richly ornamented facades and interiors, with a remarkable collection of antique artefacts. It constitutes a rare ensemble of elements of medieval Islamic architecture.
Shushtar, Historical Hydraulic System, inscribed as a masterpiece of creative genius, can be traced back to Darius the Great in the 5th century B.C. It involved the creation of two main diversion canals on the river Kârun one of which, Gargar canal, is still in use providing water to the city of Shushtar via a series of tunnels that supply water to mills. It forms a spectacular cliff from which water cascades into a downstream basin. It then enters the plain situated south of the city where it has enabled the planting of orchards and farming over an area of 40,000 ha. known as Mianâb (Paradise). The property has an ensemble of remarkable sites including the Salâsel Castel, the operation centre of the entire hydraulic system, the tower where the water level is measured, damns, bridges, basins and mills. It bears witness to the know-how of the Elamites and Mesopotamians as well as more recent Nabatean expertise and Roman building influence.
The mausoleum of Oljaytu was constructed in 1302–12 in the city of Soltaniyeh, the capital of the Ilkhanid dynasty, which was founded by the Mongols. Situated in the province of Zanjan, Soltaniyeh is one of the outstanding examples of the achievements of Persian architecture and a key monument in the development of its Islamic architecture. The octagonal building is crowned with a 50 m tall dome covered in turquoise-blue faience and surrounded by eight slender minarets. It is the earliest existing example of the double-shelled dome in Iran. The mausoleum’s interior decoration is also outstanding and scholars such as A.U. Pope have described the building as ‘anticipating the Taj Mahal’.
Located in the south-west of Iran, in the lower Zagros Mountains, the property encompasses a group of archaeological mounds rising on the eastern side of the Shavur River, as well as Ardeshir’s palace, on the opposite bank of the river. The excavated architectural monuments include administrative, residential and palatial structures. Susa contains several layers of superimposed urban settlements in a continuous succession from the late 5th millennium BCE until the 13th century CE. The site bears exceptional testimony to the Elamite, Persian and Parthian cultural traditions, which have largely disappeared.
Tabriz has been a place of cultural exchange since antiquity and its historic bazaar complex is one of the most important commercial centres on the Silk Road. Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex consists of a series of interconnected, covered, brick structures, buildings, and enclosed spaces for different functions. Tabriz and its Bazaar were already prosperous and famous in the 13th century, when the town, in the province of Eastern Azerbaijan, became the capital city of the Safavid kingdom. The city lost its status as capital in the 16th century, but remained important as a commercial hub until the end of the 18th century, with the expansion of Ottoman power. It is one of the most complete examples of the traditional commercial and cultural system of Iran.
Takht-e Soleyman (2003)
The archaeological site of Takht-e Soleyman, in north-western Iran, is situated in a valley set in a volcanic mountain region. The site includes the principal Zoroastrian sanctuary partly rebuilt in the Ilkhanid (Mongol) period (13th century) as well as a temple of the Sasanian period (6th and 7th centuries) dedicated to Anahita. The site has important symbolic significance. The designs of the fire temple, the palace and the general layout have strongly influenced the development of Islamic architecture.
Tchogha Zanbil (1979)
The ruins of the holy city of the Kingdom of Elam, surrounded by three huge concentric walls, are found at Tchogha Zanbil. Founded c. 1250 B.C., the city remained unfinished after it was invaded by Ashurbanipal, as shown by the thousands of unused bricks left at the site.
The Persian Garden (2011)
The property includes nine gardens in as many provinces. They exemplify the diversity of Persian garden designs that evolved and adapted to different climate conditions while retaining principles that have their roots in the times of Cyrus the Great, 6th century BC. Always divided into four sectors, with water playing an important role for both irrigation and ornamentation, the Persian garden was conceived to symbolize Eden and the four Zoroastrian elements of sky, earth, water and plants. These gardens, dating back to different periods since the 6th century BC, also feature buildings, pavilions and walls, as well as sophisticated irrigation systems. They have influenced the art of garden design as far as India and Spain. There are 9 gardens which were declared as world heritage as Persian Garden, there are their names and locations: 1-Ancient garden of Pasargadae ( Fars/Shiraz), 2-Bagh-e Eram (Fars/Shiraz), 3-Bagh-e Chehel Sotun (Isfahan/Isfahan), 4-Bagh-e Fin (Isfahan/ Kashan), 5-Bagh-e Abas Abad (Mazandaran/ Behshahr), 6-Bagh-e Shahzadeh (Kerman/ Mahan), 7-Bagh-e Dolat Abad (Yazd/Yazd), 8- Bagh-e Pahlavanpur (Yazd/ Mehriz), 9-Bagh-e Akbariyeh Southern (Khorasan/ Birjand)
The Persian Qanat (2016)
Throughout the arid regions of Iran, agricultural and permanent settlements are supported by the ancient qanat system of tapping alluvial aquifers at the heads of valleys and conducting the water along underground tunnels by gravity, often over many kilometres. The eleven qanats representing this system include rest areas for workers, water reservoirs and watermills. The traditional communal management system still in place allows equitable and sustainable water sharing and distribution. The qanats provide exceptional testimony to cultural traditions and civilizations in desert areas with an arid climate.
Lut Desert (2016)
The Lut Desert, or Dasht-e-Lut, is located in the south-east of the country. Between June and October, this arid subtropical area is swept by strong winds, which transport sediment and cause aeolian erosion on a colossal scale. Consequently, the site presents some of the most spectacular examples of aeolian yardang landforms (massive corrugated ridges). It also contains extensive stony deserts and dune fields. The property represents an exceptional example of ongoing geological processes.
Kerman Province is in the southeast of the country. Its center is Kerman. The province of Kerman is the second largest in Iran, 181,714 km². The population of the province is 2.6 million. Kerman is one of the most important and historic provinces of Iran. It is famous for its handicrafts (hand-woven carpets), agro and horticultural products (date and pistachio) and different kinds of pastries ('Komaj' and 'Qovvatoo'). Kerman province has more than 660 national registered historical monuments and is one of the historical provinces of Iran. Kerman Province has 6 registered UNESCO World Heritages which is in first place of UNESCO World Heritage List of Iran.
City of Kerman
City of Kerman also known as Carmania is the capital of Kerman Province and the largest and most developed city in this Province and the most important city in the southeast of Iran. It is also one of the largest cities of Iran in terms of area. Kerman is famous for its long history and strong cultural heritages. The city is home to many historic mosques and Zoroastrian Fire Temples. Kerman is also on the recent list of the world's 1000 cleanest cities. Kerman became capital city of Iranian dynasties several times during its history. It is located on a large, flat plain, 800 km (500 mi) south-east of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The most important historic palaces in Kerman city are:
- Ganjali Khan Complex: this historic place is a Safavis-era building complex located in the old center of city of Kerman and constructed by Gang Ali Khan who governed Kerman provinces from 1596 to 1621 under Sah Abbas I. The complex is concluded of monuments and buildings such as a school, a square (in ninety-nine meters by fifty-four meter, and Similar to Naqsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan and Mir Chakhmagh Square in Yazd), a caravanserai (It is located on the east side of the Ganjali Square), a bathhouse (Built in 1631 and located on the southern side of Ganjali Square, converted into an anthropological museum in 1971), an Ab Anbar (water reservoir), a mint (its construction started in 1598 and ended in 1625 , converted into a numismatics museum in 1970. The museum displays coins from different periods such as Parthian, Sassanid, Safavid and Afsharid periods), a mosque and a bazzar (The located in southern part of Ganjali Square).
Jabalieh Dome: or Rock Dome, also known as the Gabri Dome, is a place of historical importance in Iran and has been constructed of stone and brick, though the building is of stone and gypsum, and its architectural affects have been inspired from the Sassanide period. It was repaired during the first decades of the advent of Islam in Iran. It appears to predate the 2nd millennium AD and may have been a Zoroastrian building, and is remarkable because of being constructed of stone rather than the more usual brick. The octagonal building of the dome is 20 meters high, surrounded by sunshades which reduce the diameter of the walls.The dome is among the most beautiful architectural feats of Iran which was registered on the National Heritage List in 1937. Today, following the transfer of a number of other historical inscribed pieces of the area to Jabalieh Dome, it has been turned into a museum.
- The Harandi garden which these days known as Harandi Museum garden and Musical Instruments Museum in city of Kerman instructed in the middle of 19th century. This monument was registered on the National Heritage List in 1976 with the registration number 1170 as one of the national works of Iran. This museum garden has its unique architecture and great environment and is one of most important Museum garden in Iran. This garden has become a museum after being purchased by Abolqasem Harandi.
- Freezers: Moayedi freezer is built in the late Safavid period and Moayedi aqueducts supplied its water. Zarisf freezer is also related to the Safavid period and located in Kerman in Zarisf Street. Constituent elements of the freezer are tanks, fences, ponds, and ice hole. Zarisf freezer built with a mud flood and represents the oldest architecture of the desert. Zarisf freezer was registered on the National Heritage List in 1998 with the registration number 3510.
zoroastrian museum: The only anthropology museum of Zoroastrians in the world, which showcases the ancient history of Zoroastrians, is in Kerman’s Fire Temple. The idea of launching the museum along with the library of Kerman’s Zoroastrian Society came to light in 1983, when the head of the society, Parviz Vakhashouri, and the former head of library collected cultural heritage artifacts of Kerman’s Zoroastrian community. These two officials added many other objects to this collection. The museum was officially inaugurated during Jashn-e Tirgan in 2005 by Iran’s Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization (ICHHTO). Jashn-e Tirgan or Tiregan is an ancient Iranian rain festival observed on July 1. The festivity refers to archangel Tir (literally meaning arrow) or Tishtar (lightning) who appear in the sky to generate thunder and lightning for providing the much needed rain.
Bam is a city in Kerman Province. The modern Iranian city of Bam surrounds the Bam citadel. There are various opinions about the date and reasons for the foundation of the citadel. Economically and commercially, Bam occupied a very important place in the region and was famed for its textiles and clothes. The ancient citadel of Arg-e Bam has a history dating back around 2,000 years ago, to the Parthian Empire (248 BC–224 AD), but most buildings were built during the Safavid dynasty. The modern city of Bam has gradually developed as an agricultural and industrial center, and until the 2003 earthquake was experiencing rapid growth. In particular, the city is known for its dates and citrus fruit, irrigated by a substantial network of qanats. The city also benefited from tourism, with an increasing number of people visiting the ancient citadel in recent years.
Shazdeh Mahan Garden
Shazdeh Mahan Garden is a historical Persian Garden as one of the world heritage sites in UNESCO and located near (6 km away from) Mahan in Kerman Province. The garden has a rectangular shape and a wall around it. It consists of an entrance structure and gate at the lower end and a two-floor residential structure at the upper end. The distance between these two is ornamented with water fountains that are engined by the natural incline of the land. The garden is a fine example of Persian gardens that take advantage of suitable natural climate. A garden was built for Mohammad Hasan Khan Qajar Sardari Iravani ca. 1850 on this site, and was entirely remodeled and extended around 1870 by Abdolhamid Mirza Naserodolleh during the eleven years of his governorship in the Qajar dynasty. The current visible structure dates almost entirely to this second period, and is formally related to similar gardens designed by NaseroDolleh in Tehran. (Bagh Chal in Niavaran) The construction was left unfinished, due to the death of Abdolhamid Mirza in the early 1890s.
Meymand is a very ancient village in Meymand Rural District, near Shahr-e Babak city in Kerman Province. Meymand is believed to be a primary human residence in the Iranian Plateau, dating back to 12,000 years ago. Many of the residents live in the 350 hand-dug houses amid the rocks, some of which have been inhabited for as long as 3,000 years. Stone engravings nearly 10,000 years old are found around the village, and deposits of pottery nearly 6,000 years old attest to the long history of settlement at the village site. Regarding the origin of these structures two theories have been suggested: According to the first theory, this village was built by a group of the Aryan tribe about 800 to 700 years B.C. and at the same time with the Median era. It is possible that the cliff structures of Meymand were built for religious purposes. Worshippers of Mithras believe that the sun is invincible and this guided them to consider mountains as sacred. Hence the stone cutters and architects of Meymand have set their beliefs out in the construction of their dwellings. Based on the second theory the village dates back to the second or third century A.D. During the Arsacid era different tribes of southern Kerman migrated in different directions. These tribes found suitable places for living and settled in those areas by building their shelters which developed in time into the existing homes. The existence of a place known as the fortress of Meymand, near the village, in which more than 150 ossuaries (bone-receptacle) of the Sassanid period were found, strengthens this theory.
Ramsar also known as Sakht Sar is a city in and the capital of Ramsar County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Ramsar lies on the coast of the Caspian Sea. It borders the Caspian Sea to the north, Gilan province to the west, Qazvin Province to the south, and Tonekabon to the east.The native people in Ramsar are Gilaks although there are also Mazandarani people living there. They speak the language that is combination of Gilaki language and Mazandarani Language which the natives of Ramsar call their dialect "Ramsari". They are also able to speak standard Persian, the official language of Iran. Ramsar is a popular sea resort for Iranian tourists. The town also offers hot springs, the green forests of the Alborz Mountains and the vacation palace of the last Shah, which is currently the Ramsar Hotel. Locating between the forest and Caspian Sea gives Ramsar special situation and gives very magnificent view which is popular in Iran and the world. Ramsar has many beautiful places with incredible tourism attractions and because of this it has named as bride of the cities of Iran. The presence of coniferous mountains with massive cover of various plants, citrus gardens, tea and rice fields, beautiful beaches and seashore, pleasant weather areas, abundant mineral water resources, the presence of old and new airport and old hotels make this city one of the most unique cities.
The Convention on Wetlands or Ramsar Convention
The Convention on Wetlands also called the Ramsar Convention is the oldest of the modern global intergovernmental environmental agreements. Ramsar Convention is treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. The treaty was negotiated through the 1960s. It was adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar in 1971 and came into force in 1975. Every three years, representatives of the Contracting Parties meet as the Conference of the Contracting Parties (COP), the policy-making organ of the Convention which adopts decisions (Resolutions and Recommendations) to administer the work of the Convention and improve the way in which the Parties are able to implement its objectives.The Convention uses a broad definition of wetlands. It includes all lakes and rivers, underground aquifers, swamps and marshes, wet grasslands, peatlands, oases, estuaries, deltas and tidal flats, mangroves and other coastal areas, coral reefs, and all human-made sites such as fish ponds, rice paddies, reservoirs and salt pans. Under the “three pillars” of the Convention, the Contracting Parties commit to:
- work towards the wise use of all their wetlands;
- designate suitable wetlands for the list of Wetlands of International Importance (the “Ramsar List”) and ensure their effective management;
- cooperate internationally on transboundary wetlands, shared wetland systems and shared species.
Javaher Deh is a village in Sakht Sar Rural District located in western south of the Central district of Ramsar and in skirts of high Samasus Mountains and among pastures and grasses. Javaher Deh is a great destination for many tourists in north of Iran and is considered as an important tourist attraction. This village has an exemplary nature and unique weather. Despite of high volume of tourists in Javaher Deh, people of this village have retained their local and native traditions. Javaher Deh displays several thousand years’ history with old graves and Mitra worshipers placed in it. It is also well-known for road constructed by German engineers in 1971 which relates Ramsar to Javaher Deh. This road has very beautiful view with dense of green trees and covered in fog reminds fascinating drawing. The most famous mountains of it include Sorkh Tale (the eastern side of Samamus Summit) and Vazhak Se Barareh Rezheh (Rajeh). The highest mountain among these is Sorkh Tale summit. Lapa Sar with its famous and medicinal springs and Samamus and the Tomb of Shah Yahya Kiayi on Chakad Summit of Samamus are permanent places which include some of the sights and attractive locations in Javaher Deh Village. The upper streams of this village along with outstanding waterfalls, the vast forest park between the valley that is beside Safarud River and a river with sparkling mineral water are some of the tourist attractions in the area.
Safarood Forest Park
Accessibility to this incredible park starts from the beginning of Javaherde Road in the western area of Ramsar, and after passing 9 km, this beautiful park is located along with Safarood River. This park is located in the valley and down the road, with steps made to enter the park. The forest, river, mineral water, and good weather have given this place a special view. This unique forest park is one of the best destinations for tourists.
Markuh castle is located in Ramsar town, Katalem town, in the route to Talarsar, and this relic was registered as one of Iran’s national relics with the registration number of 3484 in March 15th, 2001. It is probable that its origin goes back to the Pre-Islamic eras. The name of this castle is taken from the mountain it stands upon. This place dates back to pre-Islamic era.Markuh castle used to be a strategic castle and had a military use during the third, sixth and eight Hijri centuries. From the top levels of this place, everywhere from north to the sea, from east to Tonekabon, from west to Ramsar, and from south to Alborz mountains could be surveilled. Best time to visit this historic castle is in spring.
The boulevard in front of Old Ramsar hotels and Caspian is related to Pahlavid era and is located in Ramsar City. The boulevard was recorded as one of the national monuments of Iran on 1973 with registration number 1521. This boulevard was called Casino Boulevard before the Iran revolution in 1979 and after the revolution it was changed to Moallem (Teacher) Square.
Ramsar Old Hotel
Ramsar Old Hotel is located in the heart of the city next to the National Park and near the Marble Palace (Khazar Tamashagah Museum), one of the few hotels which was recorded of National Monuments. Ramsar Old Hotel has Art Deco architecture and was built by German architects during 1878 – 1944. Construction of the hotel began in 1932 and was completed three years later. Built over a 5,000-square-meter area in three stories, the hotel is one of the most famous establishments in the Middle East. The basement of hotel has been converted into a traditional restaurant where guest can dine. The hotel also has coffee shop. This Nostalgic hotel with a long history is frequently used as a film location.
Ramsar Palace Museum
The royal Ramsar Palace or Marble Palace is one of the most precious monuments in the north of Iran. The palace was utilized to the order of Reza Shah Pahlaviin 1937 and was used until the Iran revolution as the house of Shah’s family. Palace building is in the middle of a garden with an area of 60000 meters and the first modified citrus trees and rare decorative plants were planted in this garden and this is one of the most interesting and versatile gardens in Iran. The architecture of this garden with a foundation of about six hundred meters is done by engineer Hovhaness Onik Gharibian under supervision of Iranian and German architects at that time. The palace building is made of white vein marbles and has a porch with 4 columns carved out of marble. Two marble statues of tiger are on both stairways at the back of the palace. There is a central hall at the beginning of the building and the doors of side rooms open to it. After the Iran revolution, it was opened under the title “Khazar Spectacle” in the form of a public museum to present Ramsar resting palace and the monuments in the palace and to study the various monuments related to the Caspian Sea field. The furniture being showed in this museum include, the sofas, antique candlesticks and buffets, precious bronze and marble statues and paintings by well-known painters of the world. There is a pine tree with 23 meters high in the area in front of the palace that was planted in 2013. This pine tree is known as 4 horns. The tree is more than one and a half meters wide. There is also a blue pool in front of the palace where several caviar fish are kept for decoration. Ramsar Marble Palace is inside Rmsar City and on a very easily-accessible path. The palace is known as Marble Palace for the many marbles used for its construction. For its special attractions, the palace building along with its roundabout buildings were registered on 1999 with registration number 2323 as a historical monument.
Ramsar Mineral Waters and Springs
Widespread parts Ramsar center have warm mineral waters and springs known as carbonated sulfur springs with medicinal and therapeutic properties that tourists enjoy from these waters. In addition to many therapeutic properties, these springs have a beautiful effect on the surrounding scenery. The presence of this hot water near the seashore has given Ramsar a unique feature. 52 mineral springs in Ramsar with amazing properties have caused many people to know Ramsar as the city of therapeutic tourism. One spring is useful for skin diseases, and another for relaxing nerves. One of these springs also miracles joint pain. There are several baths and mineral water pools in the towns of Ketalm and Sadat, Ramsar itself and Javaher Deh which are useful for the treatment of skin diseases, rheumatism and neuromuscular pain.
Ramsar Cable Car (Tele Cabin)
Ramsar Cable Car known as Ramsar Tele Cabin is located in Green Ramsar Complex and 5 km of west of Ramsar. It is one of most amazing tourist attractions in Ramsar. It spends 10-minute ride from Ramsar to Chaboksar along with the coast to the top of the Ilmili mountain range. Due to the existence of carting grounds, shopping malls, coffee shops and amusement parks, town hall, hotel and ... It has an attractive and complete environment for tourists. Ramsar Tele Cabin as the largest one in Iran is longing from the Caspian coast to heights of forest and has 40 cabins in length of 2 kilometers built by private sector. Ramsar Tele Cabin system with speeds of 3 m/s passes 2000 meters in 12 minutes and rises up to 700 meters to make an easy and desirable journey with beautiful and unique view of nature from high mountains of Alborz.
Dalakhani is a semi-mountainous forest with the height of about 800 meters and is therefore a good option for climbers and nature lovers. dense fog is the prominent characteristic of the Dalikhani forest, which is most beautiful feature after its unique and virgin nature. The Dalakhani Forest known as the “Dalan Behest” (Door of Paradise) is surrounded by jungle trees and unique weather and can make the ideal memory of the best nature trip. It has named the Dalkhani forests because of locating along with the vast forests of Ramsar. These forests continue along the road and after Dalkani, they arrive at Jannat Roodbar and Grosmazar, Akrasar, Galin and ... . This forest is also known as Dalikhani forest.
Ramsar has number of beautiful and scenic waterfalls with natural landscapes due to its full of snow mountains, abundant rainfalls, and its location in the water-rich region of Iran. Some of most important waterfalls in Ramsar are:
- Azark waterfall in Sang poshteh area
- Hisian waterfall in Jannat Roudbar area
- Chardar Waterfall in Jannat Rudbar Zone
- Khoshka waterfall in the Harris area
- Laj and Mijh Waterfall in Eshkour Ramsar District
- Rizesh Baraz Waterfall in Jannat Roudbar area
- Rashmeh Dareh Waterfall in Javaher Deh
- Ahsineh Waterfall in Jannat Roudbar area (the highest waterfall in the whole area)
Khuzestan is one of the provinces of Iran located at southwest of the country and covers an area of 63,238 sq. km, it is bordering Iraq and the Persian Gulf and its capital is Ahvaz. The province of Khuzestan can be basically divided into two regions which are the plains and mountainous regions. One of these regions is the alluvial plains that are irrigated by Karoon, Karkheh and Jarahi Rivers. And another is mountainous regions are situated to the north and east of the province, and are considered to be a part of southern regions of the Zagross Mountain Ranges. Major cities of Khuzestan include Abadan, Andimeshk, Omidiyeh, Eazeh, Baq-e-Malek, Mah Shahr, Behbahan, Khoram Shahr, Dezful, Dasht-e-Azadegan, Ramhormoz, Shadegan, Shoosh, Shooshtar and Masjed Soleiman. As the Iranian province with the oldest history, Khuzestan is one of the centers of ancient civilizations, dating back to 6,000 years. It is often referred to as the "birthplace of the nation", as this is where the history of the Elamites begins. Khuzestan province as historical place has many tourism attractions like Karun River, Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System, Susa city, Tchogha Zanbil, Shevi waterfall, Haft tepe, Danial Nabi Shrine.
Historically, one of the most important regions of the Ancient Near East, Khuzestan, is what historians refer to as ancient Elam, whose capital was in Susa which dating back to 6,000 years. In the 4th millennium BC the powerful Elamite government was founded in Susa, and was overthrown in the 1st millennium BC by the Assyrians. The modern city of Shush, presently occupies the ancient site (Susa). Susa is located in the south-west of Iran, in the lower Zagros Mountains; the property encompasses a group of archaeological mounds rising on the eastern side of the Shavur River, as well as Ardeshir’s palace, on the opposite bank of the river. The excavated architectural monuments include administrative, residential and palatial structures. Susa contains several layers of superimposed urban settlements in a continuous succession from the late 5th millennium BCE until the 13th century CE. Susa site was declared a world heritage in 2015 by UNESCO.
Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System
Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System, inscribed as a masterpiece of creative genius, can be traced back to Darius the Great in the 5th century B.C. It involved the creation of two main diversion canals on the river Kârun one of which, Gargar canal, is still in use providing water to the city of Shushtar via a series of tunnels that supply water to mills. It forms a spectacular cliff from which water cascades into a downstream basin. It then enters the plain situated south of the city where it has enabled the planting of orchards and farming over an area of 40,000 ha. known as Mianâb (Paradise). The property has an ensemble of remarkable sites including the Salasel Castel, the operation center of the entire hydraulic system, the tower where the water level is measured, damns, bridges, basins and mills. It bears witness to the know-how of the Elamites and Mesopotamians as well as more recent Nabatean expertise and Roman building influence. This island city was registered on UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites in 2009. The Shushtar historical Hydraulic System is outstanding for its diversity of civil engineering structures as well as its uses as urban water supply, irrigation, river transportation, and the defensive system.
Tchogha Zanbil (meaning “basket mound”) is the oldest existing ziggurat in the Near East. Located in the province of Khuzestan in Iran, the Chogha Zanbil ziggurat is estimated to be about 3,000-years-old. is an ancient Elamite complex and the Kingdom of Elam which the ruins of this holy city surrounded by three huge concentric walls, are found at Tchogha Zanbil. Founded c. 1250 B.C., the city remained unfinished after it was invaded by Ashurbanipal, as shown by the thousands of unused bricks left at the site. It lies approximately 30 km (19 mi) south-east of Susa and 80 km (50 mi) north of Ahvaz. Tchogha Zanbil is considered to be the best preserved example of the stepped pyramidal monument by UNESCO. In 1979, Chogha Zanbil became the first Iranian site to be inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Daniel Nabi Shrine
The Tomb of Daniel is the traditional burial place of the biblical prophet Daniel. Various locations have been named for the site, but the tomb in Susa, is the most widely accepted, it being first mentioned by Benjamin of Tudela, who visited Asia between 1160 and 1163. This shrine is on the eastern banks of the Shoor River. There are two yards with rooms around the yards. The tomb is at the end of the second yard, and there are rooms for visitors stay. There is an old yellow colored stone on the tomb, the ceiling has beautiful mirror works, the foundations of the tomb are old but thick and strong, and one of the sides has tile works. The dome of Daniel Nabi is a multi-sided, hexagonal in shape erected on a circular base.
Haft Tepe is an archaeological and ancient site which belongs to Elamite and remains of city of Kabnak were discovered in 1908, and excavations are still carried out. Haft Tepe (the ancient name of the site is unknown) lie on the plain of Khuzistan in southwestern Iran close to the ruins of ancient Susa. The city of Kabnak is mentioned as an important political center during the reign of the Elamite king Tempti-Ahar. The site consists of seven mounds and experts believe it was an important political center in the Elamite period (2800–300 BC). The site has yielded a royal tomb, the remains of a ziggurat, which is estimated to have been 30 meters tall, clay and stone tablets in Akkadian and countless other Elamite artifacts.
The historic City of Yazd, also known as City of Windcachers (Shahr-e Badgirha) is the capital of Yazd Province which located in the middle of the Iranian plateau, 270 km southeast of Isfahan, close to the Spice and Silk Roads. On a flat plain ringed by mountains, the city is wedged between the northern Dasht-e Kavir and southern Dasht-e Lut and is every inch a city of the desert. Because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd has a unique Persian architecture and it bears living testimony to the use of limited resources for survival in the desert. Historical structure or texture of Yazd is one of the best tourism destinations in Iran and was declared as world heritage by UNESCO on 2017. Yazd is known as first earthen city and second historic city in the world which is has most tourist attractions. qanat system in Yazd developed to draw underground water and supplies water to the city. It is also very well known for its Zoroastrian fire temples, ab anbars, qanats, yakhchals, Persian handicrafts, handwoven cloth (Persian termeh), silk weaving, Persian Catton Candy, and its time-honored confectioneries.
Dolat Abad Garden
Dolat Abad Garden is located in historic texture of Yazd and it is one of the famous and magnificent Persian gardens which has been designed and built during Zand era about 1750. The house inside the garden has several stunning and beautiful halls and rooms on which every room has craving door and unique artwork. Doors of main rooms are designed with colorful glasses and the garden can be viewed thorough a mesmerizing look. Also an aqueduct with same name supplies the required water for the garden. It’s also well-known for having Iran’s loftiest badgir (windcatcher), standing over 33m. Dolat Abad Garden as Persian garden was registered and declared as world heritage site by UNESCO.
Jameh Mosque (Masjed Jameh) of Yazd is one of the most marvelous historical monuments. The 12th-century mosque is still in use today. It was first built by Al-e Bouyeh dynasty. The mosque was largely rebuilt between 1324 and 1365, and is one of the outstanding 14th century buildings of Iran. Jameh Mosque is located in the heart of Yazd which is surrounded by bazaars, libraries, bath houses and other urban institutions. According to the historians, the original building was constructed in the site of the Sassanid and Zoroastrian fire temple which was converted into a mosque during the Seljuk reign. The mosque is a fine specimen of the Azari style of Persian architecture. The mosque is crowned with a magnificent dome, decorated with turquoise and white geometric tiles. It has a pair of minarets, the highest in Iran, and the portal's facade is decorated from top to bottom in dazzling tile work, predominantly blue in color. The elegant patterns of brick work and the priceless inscription of mosaic tiles bearing angular kufic all create a sense of beauty. The two towering minarets dating back to the Safavid era measure 52 meters in height and 6 meters in diameter.
Yazd is the center of Zoroastrianism in Iran, and is home to several sites of religious and historic interest. The Ateshkadeh, or Fire Temple, is the most important, containing a central fire that has allegedly been burning since the 5th century A.D.Zoroastrianism, an ancient monotheistic religion that dates back to around 3500 years ago, was the principal religion in Iran before the Islamic conquests, and the community still lives on in some parts of Iran. The Ateshkadeh, or Fire Temple, is the most important, containing a central fire that has allegedly been burning since the 5th century A.D.
Amir Chakhmaqcomplex is one of Yazd’s architectural centerpieces and is situated in the heart of the city, in a square of the same name. It is noted for its symmetrical sunken alcoves. The imposing three-storey facade flaunts a number of beautifully symmetrical iwans. At night, the building is lit up after twilight hours after sun set with orange lighting in the arched alcoves which makes it a spectacle. According to historians, the square was built in the 15th century by Jalal-al-Din Amir-Chakhmaq, the governor of Yazd in the Timurid era. It is one of the largest hosseiniehs in the country (buildings used in the commemorative ceremonies for Imam Hossein’s death), and dates back to the 15th century, although it has undergone numerous renovations. The surrounding square has a number of good sweet and ice cream shops.
Tower of Silence
Tower of Silence known as Dakhma is another fascinating Zoroastrian site located just outside the city and certainly worth a visit. These two circular, raised structures sit atop adjacent hills. Until as recently as the 1960s, in accordance with Zoroastrian tradition, once a body ceases to live, it can immediately be contaminated by demons and made impure. To prevent this infiltration, the bodies were left in the towers’ central pits for scavenger birds to pick at. Although the towers are no longer used in ceremony, they can be visited along with a number of the ossuaries in the area.
Kashan is a city located in Isfahan Province. Actually it is situated between Tehran, Isfahan and Yazd. Kashan is divided into two parts, mountainous and desert. This delightful oasis city on the edge of the Dasht-e Kavir is not only boasts a cluster of architectural wonders, an atmospheric covered bazaar and a Unesco recognized garden, but it also offers some of central Iran's best traditional hotels. Kashan was an important center for the production of high quality pottery and tiles between the 12th and the 14th centuries. The word for a tile (kashi) comes from the name of the town. After world known Iranian historical cities such as Isfahan and Shiraz, Kashan is a common and most alluring destination for foreign tourists due to numerous historical places.
One of the best places for visiting in Kashan is Fin Garden. Fin Garden is historical and oldest surviving Persian garden in Iran. Completed in 1590, Fin Garden is considered as one of the most beautiful gardens of its type. Within the Fin Garden are numerous structures that were erected at various points of time in the garden’s history. Kashan's Fin Bath is located in this garden where Amir Kabir, the great Qajarid chancellor, was murdered by an assassin sent by King Nasereddin Shah in 1852.Unesco declared the garden a World Herritage Site on July 18, 2012.
Maranjab desert is located near Kashan. Maranjab is one of the most beautiful desert areas of Iran whose golden sand dunes are truly mesmerizing. This desert is limited from north to Salt Lake Aran Bidgol, the West Desert Lakes and salt pond and dock Sultan Moreh, from East to desert sand dam and Desert National Park and the southern city of Aran and Bidgol. As much of the desert is covered with dunes and sabulous, Maranjab is very rich in terms of vegetation. The main vegetation consists of salt-friendly plants including tamarisk trees and bushes arch and is Qych.
The house was built in 1857 for the wife of Seyyed Mehdi Borujerdi who was a merchant bringing items from Borujerd (one of cities of Iran in Lorestan province). The wife came from the affluent Tabatabaei family who Seyyed Mehdi fell in love with her. Ustad Ali Maryam was the architect who constructed this house. It features some royal and remarkable wall paintings done by Sani-ol-Molk, the famous artist of Qajar government in 19th century, under his supervision. The house has 3 entrances and all the classic signatures of traditional Persian residential architecture, such as a biruni yard (exterior yard) and a daruni yard (andarun, interior yard); it also consists of a rectangular courtyard between a main living area (to the south) and an entrance area. The house took eighteen years to build, using 150 craftsmen.
Sultan Amir Ahmad Bathhouse
Sultan Amir Ahmad Bathhouse also known as the Qasemi Bathhouse is a traditional Iranian public bathroom in Kashan constructed in the 16th century during the time of the Safavid era. Bathhouse was damaged as a result of an earthquake and was renovated during the Qajar era. with an area of around 1000 square meters, this bathhouse has two main parts – the octagonal dressing hall called Sarbineh (a large octagonal hall and has an octagonal pool in the middle, separated by 8 pillars from the outer section) and the hot bathing hall Garmkhaneh (four pillars which make smaller bathing rooms all around as well as the entrance section to final bathing room in the middle). The objective of the bathhouse was not only to promote cleanliness, but also to be a place for discussions, relaxation and even praying. However, today the bathhouse with magnificent architecture serves as a tourist attraction.
Old Bazaar of Kashan
Bazaar of Kashan is an old Bazzar in the center of the city of Kashan. It is thought to have been built in the Seljuk era with renovations during the Safavid period. The bazaar has a famous architecture, especially at its Timche-ye Amin od-Dowleh section, where a grand light well was built in the 19th century. The bazaar is still in use and is a few miles in total length. In the bazaar's complex beside the main bazaars, there are several mosques, tombs, caravansaries, arcades, baths, and water reservoirs that each was constructed in a different period.
Tehran, the capital of Iran and Tehran Province, is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia. With population of 15 million people, it has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. Tehran is situated at southern slopes of Alborz Mountains. This magnificent city is most secular and liberal city of Iran where the past and present collide. The city was the seat of the Qajars and Pahlavis about 100 years, the two last monarchies of Iran. Tehran is the mirror of Iran and despite its many unique aspects is comparable with large cities such as Brasilia, Ankara, and even St. Petersburg.
Borj-e Azadi (Azadi Tower)
Azadi tower (Tower of Freedom) is symbol of Tehran. Designed by Iranian architect Hossein Amanat in 1971 before the revolution, Azadi tower is in heart of Azadi Square as one of the landmarks of Tehran on west entrance of city, standing guard like a sentry at the Tehran's gates. The tower is about 45 metres (148 ft) tall and has a museum inside which is located on the basement floor. Inside the floor, there are black austere walls and proportions, and a concrete mesh forms the ceiling. A combination of both Islamic and Sassanid architectural styles, Azadi Tower reminds the formation of the Persian Empire and is an interesting combination of both modern and ancient cultures.
The Golestan Palace known as Kakheh Golestan among iranian belongs to a group of royal buildings constructed and completed during the 18th and 19th century. It consists of gardens, royal buildings, and collections of Iranian crafts and European presents. This magnificent palace is one of the most important Iran’s historical constructions which has lots of foreign and Iranian visitors during year and consist of other beautiful buildings and monuments such as Shams ol-Emareh, Mirror Chamber (Taller-e Ayeneh), Building of Windcatchers (Emarat e Badgir). Golestan Palace was declared a world heritage in 2013 by Unesco.
Niavaran Palace Complex
The Niavaran Palace Complex pronouced as is a historical complex situated in Shemiran (northern Tehran) in 9000 square meters area. It consists of several buildings and monuments dating back to the Qajar and Pahlavi eras. During the Pahlavi era (1925-1979) Golestan Palace was used for formal royal receptions and the Pahlavi dynasty built their own palace at Niavaran. Presently, It consists of several buildings and museums such as Niavaran Palace Museum, Ahmad Shahi Pavilion, Sahebqaraniyeh Palace, Jahan Nama museum and the private libraryand other cultural, historical and natural attractions including the Blue Hall, Private Cinema, Jahan Nama Gallery, and Niavaran Garden.
Shiraz is the capital of Fars Province and the third-most-populous city of Iran. Shiraz is located in the southwest of Iran and has moderate climate. it is considered as one of the oldest cities of ancient Persia. The earliest reference to the city as Tiraziš is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BC. This beautiful city is considered as the city of poets, literature and flowers. It is also known by plenty of gardens and fruit trees which can be found all over the city. Shiraz as one of the Iran’s beautiful cities is full of artistic and architectural treasures.
Pasargadae, northeast of Shiraz and one of the most visited tourism destinations in Iran, is the first dynastic capital of the Achaemenid Empire, founded by Cyrus the Great, in Pars, homeland of the Persians, in the 6th century BC. It was a city in ancient Persia which is location of Cyrus the Great’s tomb. Today, Pasargadae as archaeological site is known one of Iran’s UNESCO World Heritage since 2004.
The Eram Garden is one of the most famous, beautiful and historic gardens of Iran. The garden and the building within it are located along the northern shore of the Khoshk River in Shiraz. The main building of the garden consists of three stories. In the basement one can see a beautiful small pond while on the second floor; at the center of the building is a large porch with two high standing pillars. In the basement one can see a beautiful small pond while on the second floor; at the center of the building is a large porch with two high standing pillars.This magnificent construction is among the Persian gardens list which was declared a world heritage in 2011 by UNESCO.
Everyone who travels to Iran must visit Persepolis which also known as Takht-e-Jamshid (The Throne of Jamshid). Founded by Darius I in 518 B.C., it was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire. The magnificent ruins of Persepolis rest at the foot of Kuh-e Rahmat (Mountain of Mercy) in north of Shiraz. This complex was declared as world heritage in 1979 by UNESCO. The buildings at Persepolis include three general groupings: military quarters, the treasury, and the reception halls and occasional houses for the King. After invading Archaemenid Persia in 330 BC, Persepolis was burned by main force of Alexander’s the Great army. The fire burned "the palaces" and destroyed Persepolis. Today the ruins of the magnificent Persepolis remain and it is still one of the greatest archaeological sites around the world.
Tomb of Hafez or Hafeziyeh
The tomb of Hafiz, also known as “Hafezia” in farsi, is the most visited place in Shiraz by domestic and foreign tourists every year. Khwaja Shams-ud-Din Muhammad Hafez-e Shirazi, known by his pen name Hafez (Memorizer; He is said to have known all the Quran by heart) was one of the most famous and greatest poets in the world whose tomb is always relaxing and full of positive feelings. The tomb of Hafez is located in one of the famous cemeteries in Shiraz called "Mosalla" below the Koran gate. He was born in Shiraz in 1315 and died there in 1390. His collected works are regarded as a pinnacle of Persian literature and are often found in the homes of people in the Persian speaking world, who learn his poems by heart and still use them as proverbs and sayings.
Foroughh Al-Milk Qavami’s home is located in Sang-Siyah area of Shiraz and now is a private art museum which has two beautiful yards accompany with some decorated rooms. This old house was built at 1930 (late Qajar and early Pahlavi period) created by Forugh Al-Molk Qavami (grown up Qawam Grand) on an area of 1020 square meters. This building is made for residential use in three floors including basement, ground floor and first floor. It has two exterior and interior sections with two separate courtyards, Shahshan mansion, basement, and bathroom.
The Vakil Mosque in Shiraz was built between 1751 and 1773 and situated to the west of the Vakil Bazaar next to its entrance. This mosque was during the Zand period; however, it was restored in the 19th century during the Qajar period. It covers an area of 8,660 square meters. Instead of the usual four iwans, it has only two which located on the northern and southern sides of a large open court. The iwans and court are decorated with typical Shirazi haft rangi tiles. Vakil means regent, which was the title used by Karim Khan, the founder of Zand Dynasty. Shiraz was the seat of Karim Khan’s government and he endowed many buildings, including this mosque.
Isfahan is located on the main north-south and east-west routes crossing central Iran. The Persians called it “Nesf-e-Jahan”, meaning “Half World”. Covered with beautiful hand-painted tiling, magnificent Unesco-listed public square, historic bazaar and picturesque bridges, this beautiful city is Iran’s top tourist destination. Here, we listed some of most important places in Isfahan:
The Meidan Emam also known as Naghsh-e Jahan (“Image of the World”) is a public urban square in the center of Isfahan which is one of the largest city squares in the world and an outstanding example of Iranian and Islamic architecture. Safavid shah Abbas I built Meidan Emam at the beginning of the 17th century. The square is bordered by two-storey arcades and anchored on each side by four magnificent buildings which each of them has unique architecture among the world heritages: The Shah Mosque is situated on the south side. On the west side is the Ali Qapu Palace. Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque is situated on the eastern side of this square and at the northern side Qeyssariyeh gate opens into the Isfahan Grand Bazzar. Meidan Emam as a homogenous urban ensemble built according to a unique, coherent, and harmonious plan, was the heart of the Safavid capital and is an exception alurban realisation. This historical and unique square was declared a world heritage site in 1935 by Unesco.
33 Pol (Si-o-se Pol, Bridge of 33 Spans) or Allahverdi Khan Bridge
The Allahverdi Khan Bridge, popularly known as Si-o-se-pol (bridge of thirty-three spans), is one of the eleven bridges in Isfahan and one of the most famous examples of Safavid bridge design. This magnificent construction was financed, supervised and built by Allahverdi Khan Undiladze, the Georgian chancellor of Abbas I, between 1599 and 1602. Bridge is long 298 meters (977.6 ft) and wide 13.75 meters (45.11 ft) which is considered as longest bridge on the Zayanderud (Zayandeh River). This bridge is located in the southern end of Chahar Bagh Avenue.
The Holy Savior Cathedral also known the Church of the Saintly Sisters, established in 1606 during Safavid period, is a cathedral located in the New Julfa district of Isfahan. It is commonly referred to as the Vank (Վանք), which means "monastery" or "convent" in the Armenian language. This church is the most important architectural and artistic treasure of the Armenian Christians in Isfahan.
Masjed-e Jame of Isfahan is one of the largest mosques in Iran and has been continuously constructed, reconstructed from around 771 to current time. It was firstly established at the 8th century, but it burnt down and was rebuilt again in the 11th century during the Seljuk dynasty and went through remodeling many times. This unique magnificent mosque represents different architectural styles and condensed history of the Iranian life style and culture during decades which was declared a world heritage site in 2012 by Unesco.